Author Archives: lea

Suffragette Movement: Lucy Burns on Women’s Work

Lucy Burns (1879-1966)

Lucy Burns on the quilt Women's Work, stands in the foreground holding a sign in front of her that reads "Votes for Women". She wears a white dress with a blue stripe sailor collar.

Lucy Burns, voting rights activist.

Lucy Burns, a key figure in the Suffragette Movement, appears on the Women’s Work Quilt at the very front, holding a large protest sign that reads, “VOTES FOR WOMEN”.  She was a dynamic force in the National Women’s Party.  Her courage and sacrifice helped lead to the passage of the 19th amendment.

An Apt Scholar

 Lucy was born in Brooklyn, New York into an Irish Catholic family in 1879. She had a quick mind, an engaging spirit, and a gift for language.  After attending Packer Collegiate Institute where she received instruction in social graces and religion, Lucy went on to study at Columbia University, Vassar College, and Yale University.  She earned a teaching degree and taught English at Erasmus High School in Brooklyn for two years, but had a strong desire to continue her own studies. She was lucky to have a father who encouraged, and financed her education.  Lucy headed abroad to study at the University of Berlin in Germany, and Oxford University in England.  She used her linguistic skills to charm audiences with her spoken, and written words. 

Trading Education for Experience in the Suffragette Movement

In England, Lucy learned about the suffragette movement.  She abandoned her studies and took up the cause.  Lucy practiced her skills and became an eloquent “Street Speaker” who was arrested four times for being a public nuisance.  While in jail, she met and became good friends with another American, Alice Paul.

Together, they brought the militant tactics they had learned in England to the suffragette movement in the US. However, as members of the National Women’s Suffrage Association, they were impatient with progress and split to form a new group that eventually became the National Women’s Party (NWP).

The Suffragette Movement: Silent Sentinels at the White House

suffragette movement deploys women to line up in front of White House to pressure Pres. Wilson to support 19th amendment inspired the presentation of Lucy on the Women's Work quilt holding a picket sign.

Silent Sentinels picket the White House

Suffragette Movement Women hold large banner on display when dignitaries visit.

Large banners for special visits.

Lucy organized protests and edited The Suffragist, a weekly NWP journal.  A key player in organizing the “Silent Sentinels”, Lucy oversaw more than 1000 women who picketed in front of the White House during the Wilson administration.  When important dignitaries visited the President, Lucy made sure that extra large banners with messages such as, “America is not a free democracy as long as women were denied the right to vote.” we’re prominently on display.

Woodrow Wilson found the protests irritating.  In a letter to his daughter he wrote  that these women “seem bent on making their cause as obnoxious as possible.” He also encouraged the police to crack down on the demonstrators.  Police brutality increased, and they began arresting the women for charges such as “obstructing passage on the sidewalk.”

Lucy Burns was taken to this three story stone building, along with other suffragettes, in paddy wagons.

Suffragettes taken to prison for protesting at White House.

Officers took the women to the Occoquan Workhouse, outside of Washington, DC.  Conditions were dire.  There were maggots in the food, the water was dirty, and the bedding was filthy.   Arrested six times, Lucy never backed down.  She led a hunger strike within the jail.  For this, the warden put her in solitary confinement. She persisted, and he initiated forced feedings. This was a brutal practice that involved strapping the victim to a chair and shoving a tube down her throat.  As time passed, the sentences increased in length, and the brutality worsened.

 Suffragette Movement and The Night of Terror

The most brutal events occurred on November 14, 1917.  Thirty-three women, who had been

Lucy Burns sits before a jail cell door possibly holding newspaper containing published account of the Night of Terror.

Lucy Burns in Occoquan prison

peacefully protesting, were arrested and brought to Occoquan.  They demanded to be treated as political prisoners.  Exasperated, the Prison Superintendent instructed his guards to teach the women a lesson.  They drug the women down a hall and threw them into dark, dirty cells. Through the night, the women were beaten and tortured.  Guards threw them against iron beds and benches until some lost consciousness.  They cuffed Lucy’s hands to the top of her cell door so that she was forced to stand through the night.  One woman, witnessing the violence, had a heart attack, but was denied medical treatment until the following morning.  By that time, she had died.

Lucy kept a diary of her experiences in the jail, and others shared their stories.  Published accounts of what became known as “The Night of Terror”

Suffragette movement gains public support as Lucy Burns and others were finally released from Occoquan. One women helps another, wrapped in a blanket, as they walk away from Occoquan prison

Prisoners released from Occoquan.

prompted public outrage.  The Prison Superintendent, under pressure released the women. Eventually, the women received pardons on all charges  With public sentiment now on their side, this night became a turning point in the campaign for the 19th amendment.

After passage of the 19th amendment, Lucy withdrew from prominence in the suffrage movement, and she performed charity work for the Catholic Church until her death in 1966.

My Personal Take Away…

The courage and determination these women determined to gainthe right to vote astounds me.  Even more, the brutality of the opposition startles me.  In the present day, I know that my right to vote is now secure, but I’m also aware that the voting rights of other US citizens is at risk.  Just as others fought for me, I feel compelled to fight for equal treatment of all citizens.  However, we live in strange times where truth and fairness are under assault.  I’m left wondering:  What am I willing to endure? and,  When the time comes, will I make the necessary sacrifices in the name of justice? 

What about the Workhouse?

The Occoquan Workhouse has been converted into the Workhouse Arts Center. It now offers over 800 arts education classes and workshops in a broad spectrum of art disciplines.  Each year the Workhouse Arts Center provides more than 100 exhibitions, 300 performances, and it hosts multiple large-scale community events for the region. The Arts Center also houses The Lucy Burns Museum.

The Workhouse Arts Center is located at:  9518 Workhouse Way, Lorton, VA 22079.  If you can’t visit the museum in person, visit the website.  Hear the words of the suffragettes read aloud by museum staff from the original diaries and writings: 

See the Women’s Work Quilt

Lucy Burns appears on Women’s Work holding a picket sign as she might have done in front of the White House.  The Women’s Work Quilt will debut as a featured work in the exhibit Women’s Voices, Women’s Votes, Women’s Rights, at the Clinton Presidential Library, in September 2021.  Look for more details on the Events page of this website.

Learn More About Lucy Burns and Women’s Work…

Lucy Burns Museum.  https://www.workhousearts.org/lucyburnsmuseum/

Nappier,  Terri   (August 17, 2020). Of Prison Cells and Suffrage. The Source: Washington Magazine. University of Washington in St. Louis.  https://source.wustl.edu/2020/08/of-prison-cells-and-suffrage/

Pruitt, Sarah, (4/17/19). The Night of Terror: When Suffragists Were Imprisoned and Tortured in 1917.  https://www.history.com/news/night-terror-brutality-suffragists-19th-amendment

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Dolores Huerta on Women’s Work

Find Dolores Huerta (1930-    )  Women’s Work standing on the upper level holding a sign that says “HUELGA” (Strike).  She is chosen for her efforts to improve the horrible conditions of farm workers in America, and her work to organize grass roots activism in communities that struggle. Today, in her 90’s, she continues to fight and organize.

Activism in her DNA

Dolores Huerta was born in a small mining town in New Mexico in 1930.  At 3 years old, her parents divorced and she moved to Stockton, California with her mother and two brothers.  Her father, Juan Hernandez, worked as a miner, a farm worker, and was a union activist. Dolores had little contact with her father after she moved to California, but she too, would become a force for worker’s rights.  Dolores credits Alicia, her mother, for teaching her to fight for others.  Involved in community and church organizations, Alicia was known to be kind, and fair to all in her business and community interactions.

Early Activism

As a teenager, Dolores was active in many school clubs and groups, and she was a girl scout through high school. After graduation, she earned a provisional teaching license from the local community college and began teaching elementary school in Stockton.  In the classroom, her heart broke for the poor children of farm workers who came to school barefoot and with empty stomachs.  At the time, field hands worked from sun up to sundown without a break, access to cool water, or toilets.  For this, most earned a wage of only 70 cents hour.

Inspired to address the economic injustices of the agricultural industry, Dolores became an activist organizer.  She joined the local Community Service Organization (CSO) and started the Agricultural Workers Association.  She helped to organize voter registration drives, and campaigned for local legislation to improve the lives of local farm workers.  It was in the CSO in 1955 that Dolores met César Chávez, and discovered a shared interest in improving conditions of farm workers.  Together, they quit the CSO, and founded the United Farm Workers’ Union (UFW) in 1962.  By the end of 1963, Dolores’ had successfully lobbied the State of California to obtain disability insurance and aid for families of farm work.  This was a first law of its kind in the US. 

Power Through Action

From the beginning, Dolores knew that the farm workers did not have the money to fight for

UFW poster to promote boycott of grapes

Boycott Poster

laws to protect them.  She realized that they had power through action, so she organized boycotts, voter registration, and grass roots campaign events.  Inspired by Gandhi’s Salt Boycott in the 1930, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott in the 1950’s, the UFW organized the Delano Grape Strike.  It lasted from 1965-1970.  During this time, Latino and Filipino farm workers joined forces.  They refused to harvest grapes in protest of unbearable working conditions. Strikers walked 300 miles to protest at the state capital.  Other unions, churches, and civil rights groups gave them their support. Eventually, more than 17 million people boycotted grapes and wine from California.

Non-Violent in the Face of Violence

The UFW organized the strike with a strong emphasis on non-violence, knowing that support would disappear if the workers were seen as aggressors.  Grape growers had money and political power on their side.  They had local police and goons hired by the Teamsters Union attack workers on the picket lines.  The police attacked Dolores and they broke three of her ribs and ruptured her spleen.  She spent months recovering.

The strike was long and difficult for workers.  Frustrated, many advocated for violence to achieve their goals, but César and Dolores were determined that the movement remain non-violent. In the end, the table grape growers signed a contract that guaranteed better pay, benefits, and protections for farm workers.  Dolores continued the work and helped pass the Agricultural Labor Relations Act of 1975. This law allowed farm workers to unionize and bargain for better wages and working conditions; another first in the US.

Si Se Pueda!

The UFW organized similar strikes in other farming areas.  In 1972, the Arizona legislature passed a law to prevent farm workers from organizing and

poster shows women farm workers wearing hats and bandanas over nose and mouth to protect from sun and chemicals. Image of Dolores Huerta holding sign to strike superimposed in background. Border reads, "Women's Work is Never Done"

Broccoli Harvest Strike Poster

striking, as they had done in California.  Dolores and César went to Arizona to help fight this statute.  Over and over, their challenge to locals to unite and fight was answered with “no se puede,” –No, it can’t be done.  Finally, Dolores responded, “Si, si se puede!” (“Yes, yes, it can be done”), and this became the rallying cry for workers in Arizona.  Later, Barack Obama used this phrase in his campaign for president.  At first, he gave credit for the slogan to César Chávez, but later he apologized, and corrected this mistake in the ceremony where he presented Dolores with the Presidential Medal of Honor.

Feminist Inspiration

Dolores was constant, and outspoken in her fight for worker’s rights.  She stood toe-to-toe with men, refusing to back down.  Even though it was not her goal, she became an inspiration to  women across the nation who were also fighting discrimination.  During the grape boycott, Dolores met Gloria Steinem, and she found another kindred spirit.  Moving forward, Dolores broadened her focus to address equal rights for women, along with worker’s rights.

The Work Never Ends

Dolores actively campaigned for people she believed would help her causes. A supporter of Robert Kennedy,  when he was shot and killed in Los Angeles, she was only steps away.   She fought against the use of pesticides that were poisoning farm workers.  Most recently, she fought the Trump administration roll back of pesticide restrictions.  

At age 90, Delores continues the work she started in her 20’s.  Today her work is carried out through the Dolores Huerta Foundation, and non-profit with a mission to inspire and organize communities to build volunteer organizations empowered to pursue social justice. 

Dolores seeks to plant seeds of activism in poor and working class communities by personally meeting with families in their homes to talk about the importance of voting and civic involvement.  She believes that this approach, while labor intensive, will change the path of families for generations to come.

(add photo of migrant protester in DC)

A 2017 film titled Dolores: Rebel, Activist, Feminist, Mother, tells the story of her life and work.

My Take Away…

Discuss coming out from the shadows of men

See the Women’s Work Quilt

See Ida B Wells on Women’s Work in person. This quilt will debut as a featured work in the exhibit Women’s Voices, Women’s Votes, Women’s Rights, at the Clinton Presidential Library, in September 2021.  Look for more details on the Events page of this website. Follow this blog for more stories of amazing women. Follow this link to see more of Lea’s Portrait Quilts.

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Alice Paul on Women’s Work

You can find Alice Paul (1885-1977)  on Women’s Work, standing tall as one of the three central figures on  the quilt.  They are the Visionaries, at the top of the stairs.  She holds out a glass to toast passage of the 19th Amendment. Immediately following, she began to write the Equal Rights Amendment.

Alice Paul, Susan B. Anthony, and Hillary Clinton stand together at center of quilt.

Three central figures on Women’s Work represent The Visionaries.

Suffragette from an Early Age

Alice was born on January 11, 1885 in Mount Laurel, New Jersey into an affluent Quaker family.  As Quakers, her parents believed in working to improve society on many fronts.  Alice was enlisted to the fight for women’s rights from an early age. Her mother was a suffragist, and frequently brought Alice with her to meetings and events.

Formal and Informal Education

With a strong family commitment to the education of women, Alice had excellent schooling opportunities.  She attended Swathmore College where she earned a degree in Biology in 1905.  She then earned a Master’s degree in Sociology from New York School of Philanthropy College (now Columbia University) in 1907.  Next, Alice took 3 years to travel in England and study their system of social work before returning to the US to earn a Ph.D from the University of Pennsylvania in 1910.

While in England, Alice met Lucy Burns, another American. The two friends joined the women’s suffrage movement in England, a movement that was much more radical and aggressive than in the US.  Eventually, Alice and Lucy brought the militant tactics they learned in England back home to the states.  Alice learned about protests and hunger strikes, and how to use the media to generate publicity and support.

Bringing the Fight to Washington

In 1912, Alice joined the National Women’s Suffrage Association (NAWSA), a group dedicated to establishing the right to vote for women in the US.  This group, however, focused on earning the right to vote in individual states.  Alice strongly disagreed with this approach, broke away, and started the National Women’s Party (NWP).  Her group focused efforts directly on Congress and demanded a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote.

Women marching in Washington, DC, to demand right to vote.

Women’s March in Washington, DC on March 3, 1913.

In 1913, Alice helped organize a march on Washington, held March 3, the day before President Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration.  Nearly 8000 women marched down Pennsylvania Ave. with banners and floats demanding the right to vote.  After inaugruation, President Wilson refused to meet with Alice and members of the NWP.  Instead, he insisted that it was not yet time for a constitutional amendment.  The fight continued.

The Silent Sentinels

In  January 1917, Alice helped organize the Silent Sentinels,” a group of over 1000 women who Femal protestor stands before gate of the White House with banner that says, "Mr. President, How long must women wait for liberty"picketed in front of the White House for 18 months.  Each day, women would stand at the gates with sign that read “Mr. President, how long must women wait for liberty?” and “Kaiser Wilson”. The women endured harsh weather conditions, as well as, verbal and physical attacks from onlookers.  Rather than protect their right to free speech, police, beat and arrested the protesters on trumped up charges of obstructing traffic.  

In the face of police brutality, Alice remained fierce.  When she was sentenced to 7 months in jail, Alice organized a hunger strike.  Doctors were brought in to force feed her.  This involved strapping her to a chair, holding her head back, shoving a tube down her throat. Doctors also threatened to declare her insane and send her to an asylum.

Young woman stands holding banner that reads, "We Demand that the American Government Give Alice Paul, a political offender, the privileges Russia gave Miyukoff

Suffragette demands fair treatment for Alice Paul

Newspaper accounts of the treatment the women were enduring in prison prompted public sympathy and support for the cause.  Finally, in 1918, President Wilson publicly announced his support for the suffrage movement.  

The 19th Amendment

Passing the 19th amendment remained a slow process.  Once taken up by the Congress,  the Senate and the House of Representatives must approve the amendment, and then at least 36 states must ratify it.  This took almost 2 years. but the 19th amendment was finally adopted as part of the US Constitution on August 26, 1920. Alice Paul on Women’s Work holds up a glass to toast the passage of the amendment. It was actually a glass of grape juice, as Alice was against drinking alcohol.

Alice sits at table sewing a star to a banner for each state that ratifies the 19th amendment.

Alice and NWP members sew stars on ratification banner.

Alice Paul stands on balcony with star banner hanging down. Many women standing on ground below looking up.

The Star banner unfurled to mark 19th Amendment ratification

What about the Equal Rights Amendment…

Following the passage of the 19th Amendment, Alice immediately turned her attention to the Equal Rights Amendment. After all, with its latest amendment, the Constitution guaranteed  women the right to vote; nothing more.  The ERA guaranteed equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex. It would end distinctions between men and women in cases of divorce, property ownership, working conditions, pay, and a host of other issues.  Alice Paul and Crystal Eastman introduced the ERA to Congress in December 1923. The bill languished for many years until it gained massive support in the 1960’s.  The ERA was passed by Congress and the Senate in 1972.  By 1977 only 35, of the required 38 states had ratified the amendment.  Alice Paul died in 1977, knowing the amendment, while close at hand, was not yet a reality.

My Personal Take Away

Alice Paul stands on Women’s Work as she stood her entire life, committed to equality for women, in fact, all American citizens. I’m struck by her unwavering dedication to the cause, and what she was able to accomplish as a result.  I’m in a period in my own life where I feel constantly distracted from the task at hand by frivolous videos, news reports, ads for things I don’t really need. In my studio,  I’m hanging a photo of Alice Paul holding up a glass as a reminder to focus on what is important, and to turn off the rest of the noise.

See the Women’s Work Quilt

Women’s Work will debut as a featured work in the exhibit Women’s Voices, Women’s Votes, Women’s Rights, at the Clinton Presidential Library, in September 2021.  Look for more details on the Events page of this website.

Learn More About Alice Paul

Michals, Debra.  “Alice Paul.”  National Women’s History Museum.  2015.  www.womenshistorymuseum.org/education-resources/biographies/alice-paul. 

“The Nineteenth Amendment: A Crash Course.” National Park Service website. 2020.  https://www.nps.gov/articles/2020-crash-course.htm

History.com editors (2/8/2021). “Alice Paul.” A&E Television Networks. https://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/alice-paul

Kathryn Elizabeth Colohan, Jill S. and Krista Joy Niles (2018). “ERA History” Alice Paul Institute. https://www.equalrightsamendment.org/history

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diptych of 2 native American men on horseback crossing a river. On left panel the man turns to look at the viewer. On the the right panel, the man is riding away from the viewer.

Create Depth with Atmospheric Perspective

Art quilters can create the illusion of depth with atmospheric perspective when they apply four key color concepts in pictorial quilts.  Creating depth with atmospheric perspective was one of the topics I discussed in my monthly Color & Composition class.  Read on for a summary of that part of the discussion.  If you are intrigued,  information about future Color & Composition class sessions is at the bottom.

The Illusion of Depth in Art

There are two types of perspective that can be employed in your art quilts to create the illusion of depth in a pictorial work such as landscape or seascape. The first is linear perspective; the use of 1 or 2 vanishing point with lines in the composition converging on those points.  This is the most commonly recognized and used method for creating that illusion of depth.  Raphael’s painting, School of Athens, is a great example.  Notice that the architectural lines lead to a single vanishing point in the center of the composition.

Inspiration for Women's Work

School of Athens by Raphael, 1509-1511.

A second method is to create the illusion of depth with atmospheric perspective.  This method relies on manipulation of color to create the illusion of depth.  Saint Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, by Jan van Eyck provides an example of this.  Compare the elements in the foreground with those that appear to be far in the distance.

An illusion of depth using atmospheric perspective is evidenced in this painting of 2 priests in brown cloaks kneeling on the ground among rock outcroppings with city visible in the distance.

Jan van Eyck, Saint Francis of Assisi Receiving the Stigmata, 1430

Keys to Create Depth with Atmospheric Perspective

With the great masters as our inspiration, let’s shift our focus to art quilting and the selection of fabrics for landscape quilts.  There are 4 key considerations.

Texture

Represent the textures of items that are close to the viewer such as plants, rocks, clothing, furniture.  Less textural detail should be visible in elements that appear in the mid-ground,  and eliminate textural detail in the background. Quilters also have the option of adding texture with stitching and surface embellishments.

An illusion of depth using atmospheric perspective is evidenced in these three sets of fabrics show heavy medium and light texture in three colors: gray, red-violet, green

Fabric selection based on texture and depth.

Value & Value Range 

Moving from foreground to background, the value range should narrow.  Render elements in the foreground  with a broad value range from very light to very dark. Reduce the value range to make elements appear further away by eliminating the lightest and darkest values.  Also, shift the value range to the lighter end of the value scale because darker values are lost to a greater degree than lighter values. 

2 grayscales, fingers show use of values used in atmospheric perspective. Light to dark used in foreground. light to medium dark used in background.

Value range for atmospheric perspective

An illusion of depth using atmospheric perspective is evidenced in this art quilt of park bend on outcropping overlooking receding ridges of tree covered hills in a snowstorm.

Winterscape

Clarity

Elements become less defined as they move to the distance.This is related to texture.  Texture would be how you represent the surface of a object, Clarity focuses on the shapes of objects The edges of your shapes will soften and become more blob-like as those objects move to the distance.  Below is a simple seascape composition that I created as a class sample.  In the detail view of the palm trees, notice how the outline of the palm fronds is simplified in the tree on the right.  Id I were to add a third tree further in the distance, the palm fronds would have gentle curving edges in contrast to the jagged edges of the foreground and mid-ground trees.

beach scene in fabric with two palm trees on the left and an island at the horizon on the right.

Beach scene

An illusion of depth using atmospheric perspective is evidenced in the tops of two palm trees showing greater clarity in the foreground tree

beach scene detail of palm tree tops

Temperature

Warm colors advance and cool colors recede.  When selecting fabrics for a composition, make note of the colors that will appear in the foreground, mid-ground, and background. For colors that repeat at various distances, selected warmer versions to appear closer, and cooler versions to appear in the distance.   For example, the color red in the foreground could be a warmer red-orange, while red in the distance could be a cooler red-violet.  Look below at Crossing Over.  The water in the foreground is a mix of blue and blue-green, but is rendered in blue-violet in the background.  The foliage on the distant back is green near the water’s edge and blue-green on the more distant hills.

diptych of 2 native American men on horseback crossing a river. On left panel the man turns to look at the viewer. On the the right panel, the man is riding away from the viewer.

Crossing Over, diptych by Lea McComas

Water detail in Crossing Over shows atmospheric perspective as foreground in in blue-green to blue, and back ground is done in blue-violet.

Water detail in Crossing Over

Figure & background detail of Crossing Over shows foliage in front in green colors with background foliage in blue green. Warm reds and blues in clothing of figure pop forward in the composition.

Figure & background detail of Crossing Over

Create Depth in the Sky

When it comes to the sky, we often forget to create depth using atmospheric perspective. Treat the sky as an element of the composition.  The top of the composition is the foreground, and sky near the horizon line is the background.  Sky should be a warmer, more saturated color at the top of the composition and move to a cooler, less saturated color at the horizon.  A common mistake is to use a solid blue fabric, or a printed sky with cloud fabric.  The problem is that these fabrics present a static representation of the sky that make it appear flat. They fight the illusion of depth, rather than support it.  I suggest a hand-dyed or ombre fabric to support depth using atmospheric perspective.

fabric sample of blue sky with clouds.

Sky with clouds

flat light blue square

Flat sky color

blue square with vibrant color at the top and pale color at the bottom

blue sky ombre

Join our next Color & Composition Session

Interested in learning more? Every month I lead a Color and Composition class where we explore a color scheme, color concept, and a composition concept.  We meet online  the 4th Saturday of every month 1:00-3:00 PM MDT. To join us, sign up through the Rocky Mountain Quilt Museum.

Subscribe to this blog for future summary updates on topics covered in the Color & Composition class.

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Unity & Variety Create Harmony & Interest

Unity & Variety are tools to create harmony and interest in art quilt compositions, and were the elements of composition that  we explored in the last session of my monthly COLOR & COMPOSITION class.  In this  blog I’m sharing some of the highlights of that discussion.

UNITY refers to a relationship between the elements within a composition that bring harmony.  The desired effect is to create the feeling that a work is a single creation with multiple parts, as opposed to, a collection of separate things.

Composition with unity

Round place mat with various items including a plant, fork, pen, latex glove, and pliers.

Composition with disunity

Techniques to Create Unity.

A number of techniques can be used to create unity.

Visual Repetition

Visual repetition is probably the most common way of creating unity.  Repetition gives a

Analogous scheme with blue & yellow parents.

Analogous scheme with blue & yellow parents.

sense of familiarity.  As humans, we prefer familiarity over anomaly.  This can play out in various ways:

Color Scheme– Choosing a scheme brings focus and consistency.  Each color is a part of a larger structure.

Line-Repetition of lines is more than having multiple lines.  It is also about repeating the same kind of line, such diagonal, horizontal, s-curve, or spiral.

Shape:  Shapes can be geometric or organic.  They can vary in size, or color. In eluding multiple versions of the shape creates familiarity and harmony.

Proximity

Placing items near each other creates unity through grouping.  This is where negative space is important.  If you are going to create a space for items to gather, there also has to be a place where they do not gather.  This “negative space” will be a topic in our next Color & Composition session.

Still life composition with potted tree in front of a window next to a trunk covered by a hand women mat. A tin cup and pitcher sit atop the trunk with a small plate with tangerines. One is peeled and divided.

Turkish Treasures Still Life, 2020.

This still life composition was created for an article I wrote for Quilting Arts Magazine (April/May 2020).  It illustrates the concept of proximity.  I communicate that these objects go together by placing them in contact with each other, or overlapping them. 

Simplicity

Eliminate unnecessary elements in a composition so that the focus can be on what is important. Too many different things competing with each other creates confusion and discomfort.

When I teach my portrait class, students work from a photo.  One of the first things I talk about is cropping out anything that is in the background that has nothing to do with the subject.  If it can’t be cropped, then distort, blur, or replace it.  This is what I did in Sweet Song From and Old Fiddle.

Hand holding the neck of a fiddle is visible with a mottled blue-green background.

Detail of Sweet Song From and Old Fiddle, 34″ x 18″, 2013.

Thematic Relationship

You may have objects that don’t share other unifying qualities, but they share an underlying meaning.  A good analogy is the sewing machine: it is made of many different parts, but, put it all together and it it works. Remove a piece, and it doesn’t.

I remember a news report on January 20,  Inauguration Day that featured Donald Trump speaking at Andrews Joint Base in front of 17 American flags.  Apparently, the number 17 was important because Q is the 17th letter of the alphabet, and Q-Anon supporters believed this was a symbol of the revolution to come later in the day.

Consider those elements: American Flags, Letter Q, # 17, Revolution.

Regardless of your political leanings, that those elements were thematically connected, is astounding.—Scary as hell, yet, astounding.

The example I have to share with you is much more benign.  I give you Busy Signal where a cell phone, a hand with wait gesture, and a face cut off below the eyes send a message about communication and connection in our world.

Busy Signal, 25 in x 36, 2017.

Add Variety to Create Interest

Variety-of elements creates interest, breaks the boredom, and adds interest.  Again, there are various ways to do this.

 Altered Repetition

Incorporate an anomaly, a change in the repetition.  In the Circles in Squares example below, all of the elements share a color scheme, and the sizes and shapes are consistent, but offsetting, or slight shifting of elements adds interest.

Circles-in-Squares color study

Interrupt the Pattern

Another option is break a pattern my inserting a another element.  I did this in my tribute to Malala, by placing her image over a large floral border.

Portrait of Malala wearing a red scarf with a white background. A Islamic floral border of blue and red flowers with green leaves. The center text is a quote by Malala Yousafzai, "With guns you can kill terrorists, with education you can kill terrorism.

Malala, by Lea McComas, 30″ x 50″, 2019.

Color & Composition Monthly Workshop

Interested in learning more? Every month I lead a Color and Composition class where we explore a color scheme, color concept, and a composition concept.  We meet online  the 4th Saturday of every month 1:00-3:00 PM MDT. To join us, sign up through the Rocky Mountain Quilt Museum.

Subscribe to this blog for future updates on topics covered in the Color & Composition class.

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Shirley Chisolm fabric portrait from Women's Work quilt, front view, wearing lime green dress.

Shirley Chisholm on Women’s Work

Shirley Chisolm fabric portrait from Women's Work quilt, front view, wearing lime green dress, walking down stairs among protestors and legislators

Shirley Chisholm on Women’s Work

Shirley Chisholm(1924-2005) on WOMEN’S WORK, is located at the bottom of the stairs,  wearing a lime green dress.  She is situated between legislators and demonstrators marching forward down the stairs.  Shirley, known as a courageous, and tireless champion for the poor and working class, is famous as the first black woman to serve in Congress.  She was also the first black female presidential candidate from a majority political party. 

Fierce Advocate

Born Shirley Anita St Hill on November  30, 1924 to  Caribbean Immigrants from British Guyana and Barbados, her father was a factory laborer, and her mother was a domestic worker and seamstress.  The family lived in the Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn. Believing it would provide a safer environment, Shirley’s parents sent her and three younger sisters to live with their grandmother on the island of Barbados. The girls lived there for about 7 years.  Shirley attributes much of her success to the early education she received in the traditional British school system of Barbados.  Upon her return to New York City at the age of 10, she performed well in the integrated, but mostly white classrooms.  

After high school, Shirley earned a Bachelor of Arts at Brooklyn College where she also won awards for debate.  Then, she worked in an early child care center, married Conrad Chisholm, and earned her Masters in Elementary Education from Columbia University. She worked her way up to director of the Hamilton-Madison Child Care Center in the 1950’s, and became an educational consultant to New York City’s Bureau of Child Welfare from 1959 to 1964. 

Shirley learned to fight for social justice in her teens from her father who was an active member of a labor trade union.  Her confidence, speaking skills, and grit made her an effective advocate for civil rights, women’s rights, and workers rights.  She was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1965, and became the first black woman elected to the US House of Representatives in 1968.  She served her constituents as a fierce, and vocal legislator. 

Unbossed & Unbought

Shirley’s campaign slogan, “Unbossed and Unbought,” was an apt description.  At first, Shirley

was appointed to the Agriculture Committee.  This was the result of efforts by Southern

congressmen to put her in a place where she would have little influence or power.  Angered, she waged a campaign to be reassigned.  This was unheard-of since freshmen representatives were expected to follow the rules without complaint.  In the end, Shirley got her way, but not before she found a silver lining in agriculture.  In the late 1960’s farmers in the midwest had surplus food that they couldn’t sell.  Shirley teamed with Senator Bob Dole from Kansas and, together, they started what would become the Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to provide food supplements to at-risk women and their infants.

Long desk with 3 black male legislators and Shirley Chisholm sitting behind

Congressional Black Caucus.

During her seven terms in Congress, Shirley successfully helped pass numerous pieces of legislation that gave voice and power to those who were ignored by the government.  She opposed the VietNam War and fought to reduce military spending in favor of increasing funds for domestic social programs. She pushed through legislation that expanded funding for day care and education, and expanded minimum wage protections for domestic workers. In support of women, Shirley hired only females to work in her congressional office, and half of her staff were black.

Presidential Run

Finally, in 1972, Shirley decided to run for President as the Democratic candidate. She became

campaign poster with words Vote for Chisholm, Unbossed and Unbought. Shows image of Shirley Chisholm speaking

Campaign Poster

the first black candidate from a major party, and the first woman Democratic party candidate.  A major obstacle for her campaign, were the black male colleagues within the party.  Shirley claimed that she faced more discrimination for being a woman, than for being black. Winning the nomination was a long shot, but, Shirley hoped to amass enough support to be able to influence the party platform. She planned to demand a black vice-presidential candidate, and insist on diversity in cabinet, and agency appointments.

Shirley invited all to “Join me on the Chisholm Trail” as she campaigned across the country on a shoe-string budget, and heavy reliance on volunteers. Her policy positions included support for:

  • Anti-poverty legislation

    Shirley Chisholm behind lecture, speaking at convention

    Shirley speak at Democratic Nat’l Convention

  • Ending the VietNam war
  • Abortion rights
  • Gay rights
  • National health insurance
  • Legalization of marijuana
  • Fair housing laws
  • Busing as a temporary means to desegregate schools

Shirley built a broad coalition of supporters, but, she did not win the nomination. She did, however, come in 4th in a field of 15 candidates at the Democratic Convention.  She inspired women worldwide, and was voted as one of the 10 most admired women in the world.  After the election, Shirley returned to Congress where she served another 10 years.  In retirement, she remained involved in many political organizations, spoke at colleges to encourage student activism, and continued to fight for women’s rights.  

What about those demands at the convention…

In her run for president, Shirley hoped to gain the clout to demand a black vice presidential running mate, and diversity in cabinet and agency appointments.  That was in 1972.  Not until the election of Joe Biden and Kamala Harris in 2020, nearly 50 years later, did those demands became a reality.  At the inauguration ceremony, Harris wore purple as a tribute to Shirley Chisholm whose campaign colors were purple and yellow.

My take away…

The pace of equality is much too slow.  In researching Shirley Chisholm, I must confront the question, “What are you doing about it?”.

As a high school teacher, I work with many students from marginalized groups: young women and children of immigrants.  They often do not have a family history of education or activism, so, I try to plant those seeds.  I challenge students to be the first in their families to graduate from high school, to set a goal of attending college, and to register to vote. These steps can change the path of an entire family for years to come.

girl standing, inserting ballot into collection box outside in snow storm

1st Time Voting

In the 2020 election, a former student contacted me because she wanted to vote.  She didn’t know how, and no one she knew had ever voted in a US election.  Over the phone, I talked her through the registration process.  When her ballot arrived, I explained each of the issues, and shared a booklet from the state voting commission with more information.  After talking her through marking and sealing her ballot, I drove her to the drop-off site and told her, “Next time, bring two friends and we’ll do this again.”

See the Women’s Work Quilt

See Ida B Wells on Women’s Work in person. This quilt will debut as a featured work in the exhibit Women’s Voices, Women’s Votes, Women’s Rights, at the Clinton Presidential Library, in September 2021.  Look for more details on the Events page of this website. Follow this blog for more stories of amazing women. Follow this link to see more of Lea’s Portrait Quilts.

Learn More About Shirley Chisholm…

Michals, Debra.  “Shirley Chisholm.”  National Women’s History Museum.  2015.  www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/shirley-chisholm. 

History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, ““Catalyst for Change”: The 1972 Presidential Campaign of Representative Shirley Chisholm,” https://history.house.gov/Blog/2020/September/9-14-Chisholm-1972/(January 30, 2021)

Shirley Chisholm: First African American Congresswoman (March 31, 2020).  Timeline-World History Documentaries.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fz-dfJIprkY

Shirley Chisholm Biography, Encyclopedia of World Biography, (January 30, 2021). https://www.notablebiographies.com/Ch-Co/Chisholm-Shirley.html

Dovid Zaklikowsk (January 20, 2021)  Turning Disappointment Into Food for the Hungry. The Rebbe.org. https://www.chabad.org/therebbe/article_cdo/aid/558041/jewish/Turning-Disappointment-Into-Food-for-the-Hungry.htm

History.com Editors (December 10, 2020). Shirley Chisholm. A&E Television Networks.  https://www.history.com/topics/us-politics/shirley-chisholm

 

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Ida B Wells portrait in fabric on the quilt Women's Work. Ida is wearing orange dress typical of 1940's. Her hair is in a know on top of her head. She is arm in arm with Gloria Steinem.

Ida B. Wells on Women’s Work

Ida B. Wells (1862–1931appears on Women’s Work on the main level of the quilt, walking arm in arm with Gloria Steinem.  She is included because of her contributions as a journalist, and is notable for her investigative reporting on lynching in America.

Ida was born to slave patents in Holly Springs, Mississippi on July 16, 1862.  However, at the age of 6 months, she and her family were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation.  Following the civil war, her parents were active in Reconstruction.  Her father joined the Freedman’s Aid Society and helped start

head and shoulders sketch of Ida B Wells, circa 1940.

Journalist, Ida B Wells. Circa 1940.

 Shaw University.  This school for newly freed slaves is where Ida received her early schooling.

At age of 16, Ida lost both parents and an infant brother in a Yellow Fever outbreak.  As the oldest, she had to care for younger brothers and sisters. So, she convinced a local school administrator that she was 18 and was hired as a teacher. Over the next few years, Ida arranged for her brothers to work as carpenter apprentices, and moved her sisters to live with an aunt in Memphis, Tennessee.  Ida returned to college and honed her journalistic skills at Fisk University and continued to work as a teacher.

Injustice in the South

In 1884, Ida bought a first class train ticket in Memphis. She boarded the train, but was denied a seat in first class.  The conductor told to sit in the car reserved for blacks.  Ida refused and an argument ensued.  The conductor and fellow passengers forcibly removed her from the train.  Ida sued the train company and won a $500 settlement in a circuit court.  On appeal, the Tennessee Supreme Court overturned the ruling, and charged Ida for court fees.  Outraged, she channeled her energy into several editorial articles published in black newspapers.  Using the pseudonym “Iona,” she criticized Jim Crow laws and treatment of blacks in the south.  Eventually, Ida owned and published her own newspaper, Free Speech, in Memphis.

In 1892, three balck men opened a grocery store in Memphis.  Their success drew customers from the white owned store across the street. One night, a group of white men gathered to vandalize the store.  In defending the shop, several white men were shot and injured.  Officials arrested the black store owners.  Later that evening, a white mob took them from their cells and hung them.

Investigation of Lynching

Outraged by the death of her friends, Ida carried out her own investigation of

Cover of book The Red Record by Ida B Wells, showing image of a lynching party.

The Red Record, documents lynching in America

lynching in the South. First, she published her findings in a pamphlet titled Southern Horrors. Later, she traveled to give lectures and wrote a book, A Red Record, detailing the treatment of blacks in the south.   She documented the practice of lynching black men who challenged the authority of whites, or dared to be successful in politics, or business. Using her words, she effectively painted a picture of conditions for blacks in the South.  In a speech she delivered in Boston on February 13, 1893, Ida reported, 

…since invested with citizenship, the race has been indicted for ignorance, immorality and general worthlessness declared guilty and executed by its self constituted judges. The operations of law do not dispose of negroes fast enough, and lynching bees have become the favorite pastime of the South.

The brutal honesty of her reporting angered whites who descended on her newspaper office, destroyed the presses,   The mob proved her words correct when they threatened to kill her if she returned to Memphis.  Ida escaped to England where she continued her anit-lynching campaign, and brought international attention to racial injustice in America.

In 1895, Ida returned to the US, settled in Chicago, and married Ferdinand Barnett, a lawyer and newspaper editor. Together, they raised 4 children and continued to fight social injustice on many fronts. Ida was active in several social justice issues, including women’s suffrage, and equal education for blacks.  She was a co-founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Ida continued to write and lecture in the US, and abroad, until her death in 1931.

The False Characterization

Ida’s investigative reporting  uncovered a common justification for lynching. Whites  justified the murder of black men with the assertion that those men would sexually assault white women. Essentially, whites believed that lynching was necessary to protect the virtue of their wives and daughters. 

It is important to note here, that multiple sources, over many decades, consistently show that sexual violence data, disaggregated by race, shows that perpetrators are most likely to be white. In fact, sexual violence by whites occurs at a level of more than double that of blacks. For current statistics visit the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network website: RAINN.org.

My personal take away…

The research for Ida B Wells on Women’s Work led me to a startling realization.  The false notion that black men are inherently “dangerous” exists in my own consciousness. Growing up in a white suburb of Kansas City, I had very few interactions with blacks, so how did I learn this? Upon reflection, I realized that the lessons were part of my growing up. For example, when my family drove into the city, through predominantly black sections of town, my parents instructed us to lock our doors. Now, in my 50’s, I’m adamant that I’m not racist.  However, driving through Denver, the thought that I should lock my car door sometimes pops into my mind.  Those irrational ideas still echo in my head.  Because I’m aware, I will stop it, and I’ll speak up when others perpetuate that idea.

See the Women’s Work Quilt

See Ida B Wells on Women’s Work in person. This quilt will  debut as a featured work in the exhibit Women’s Voices, Women’s Votes, Women’s Rights, at the Clinton Presidential Library, in September 2021.  Look for more details on the Events page of this website. Follow this blog for more stories of amazing women. Follow this link to see more of Lea’s Portrait Quilts.

Learn more about Ida B. Wells…

Biography.com Editors (2020, June 24). Ida B. Wells Biography. A&E Television Networks and the Biography.com website. https://www.biography.com/activist/ida-b-wells

Norwood, Arlisha (2017). Ida B. Wells-Barnett. National Women’s History Museum.  www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/ida-wells-barnett.

Steptoe, T. (2007, January 19) Ida Wells-Barnett (1862-1931). BlackPast.org. https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/barnett-ida-wells-1862-1931/ 

Editors of BlackPast.org (2007, January 29). Ida B. Wells, “Lynch Law In All Its Phases” transcript of speech delivered at Boston’s Tremont Temple on February 13, 1893,as published in Our Day magazine, May 1893.  BlackPast.org. https://www.blackpast.org/uncategorized/1893-ida-b-wells-lynch-law-all-its-phases/ 

Ida B Wells, The Red Record Lynching in the United States. Available free through pdfbooksworld.com. https://www.pdfbooksworld.com/The-Red-Record-by-Ida-B-Wells-Barnett

Wells-Barnett, Ida B., “Southern horrors : lynch law in all its phases,” Digital Public Library of America, http://dp.la/item/3f4d5d3a67f8ce16f1b00b3cb01dc143

Ida B. Wells, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front. , None. [Between 1940 and 1960?] Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/2009633545/.

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Bamboo by Lea McComas, features echo images of bamboo in analogous color scheme of yellow-green, green-blue-green.

Analogous Color Schemes Create Harmony

Analogous Color Schemes were one of topics discussed in my last

online Color & Composition class.  I hope the information presented here will inspire you to explore this color scheme. If you find this helpful, and want to join me for the next session, you will information at the bottom.  

Analogous color schemes include a run of colors next to each other on the color wheel.  These schemes can include 3, 5 or 7 colors. They work best when built around primary colors.  Like a monochromatic scheme, analogous schemes are great for conveying strong emotion. They also have

Analogous Scheme with mother Yellow.

Analogous Scheme with mother Yellow.

greater potential for energy and interest.  

 Analogous is a word that references a collection that has something similar, or a direct connection that applies to each element. The strong relationship among the colors in this scheme creates a sense of harmony.  There is a kind of kinship.

Analogous run with 7 colors

Analogous run with 7 colors

Analogous Colors Schemes are like Families.

One way to build analogous color schemes is to begin with a primary

Analogous scheme with red mother

Analogous scheme with red mother

color.  Think of this as the mother, and then expand to include the color, or child,  on each side.  Expand the scheme further to 5 colors by including the father of each child.   In this analogy, it is easy to understand that managing the harmonious effect of this scheme becomes more challenging, as the family gathering expands.

Analogous scheme with 2 primary parents

Analogous scheme with 2 primary parents

Another way to build analogous color schemes is to choose two primary colors.  Think of these as parents.  Then, include all of the children, or colors, in between.  Reduce the color scheme to 3 colors by eliminating the parents and using  just the siblings,. 

In either case, the scheme can be expanded further to include 7 colors. However, expanding this much requires incorporating a set of direct complements. Direct complements bring a lot of energy. That drama can disrupt the family harmony. Think of these as the mother-in-laws.

Analogous run with 7 colors

Analogous run with 7 colors

No Sleepy Schemes

With the colors being so close on the color wheel, analogous color schemes have the potential to be a bit boring, or sleepy.  Increase variety within the scheme to combat this.  One way to do this is through an expanded scheme.  The advantage of a 5-color scheme over a 3-color scheme is the ability to increase the color contrast.   Look at the examples below.

fabric swatches for 3-color scheme

fabric swatches for 3-color scheme

fabric swatches for 5-color scheme

fabric swatches for 5-color scheme

Another strategy is to emphasize one color within the scheme over the others.    Any color within the scheme can be the star of the show.  However, luminous colors, such as yellow, will naturally want to be the center of attention. Manage the scheme by using purer hues, and more intense versions of the color to be emphasized. Likewise, use more tints, tones, shades, and less intense version of the other colors.

3 Analogous Experiments

I spent a day experimenting with various analogous color schemes. Working with 5 colors, I chose a hue, tint, and shade of each color, and then mixed in  a collection of neutral gray fabrics.  In each experiment I created 48 half square triangle blocks and then arranged various compositions on the design wall.

Experiment 1: Mother Red

This analogous run stretched from violet to orange.  Here was my final composition. The grayscale image shows how value is also at play.

Analogous scheme built around red.

Analogous scheme built around red.

Grayscale view of Red analogous scheme.

Grayscale view of Red analogous scheme.

Experiment 2: Parents Blue and Yellow

Here is my analogous run with two primary parents and their children. The grayscale image is also included.

Analogous scheme with blue & yellow parents.

Analogous scheme with blue & yellow parents.

Grayscale view of Yellow-Blue scheme.

Grayscale view of Yellow-Blue scheme.

Breaking the Rules

What happens when the analogous color scheme is built around tertiary colors, instead of primaries? 

In my third experiment, I built a scheme with blue-violet as the central color, stretching from red-violet to blue green.  Using the family analogy, this is like loosing the parent red at one end of the run, and bring in the mother-in-law at the other end of the run. My results were less than ideal, but not a total disaster. Blue-green definitely feels like an outlier in this scheme.  It is the only color with a touch of yellow.  See my results below.

Scheme based on tertiary colors

Scheme based on tertiary colors

Grayscale view of tertiary scheme.

Grayscale view of tertiary scheme.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the next Color and Composition class we’ll delve deeper into the analogous color scheme and take a look at an Accented Analogous Scheme.  We meet on the 4th Saturday of every month 1:00-3:00 PM MDT. To join us, sign up through the Rocky Mountain Quilt Museum.

Subscribe to this blog for future updates on topics covered in the Color & Composition class.

 

 

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Margaret Sanger on Women’s Work

Margaret Sanger (1879-1966)

Margaret Sanger in blue suit standing next to Melinda Gates in a red pant suit. They discuss the birth control and reproductive rights for women.

Margaret Sanger on Women’s Work

The image of Margaret Sanger on Women’s Work is located on the main level to the right of center.  She is depicted talking with Melinda Gates. They are  discussing the state of women’s reproductive rights. Margaret shares her first person account of the struggle in America, while Melinda updates her on taking that campaign to the world.

The Trauma of Motherhood

Margaret Higgins Sanger was born, September 14, 1879 in Corning, NY.  Her mother, before dying at age 40, became pregnant 18 times.  She gave birth to 11 children (Margaret was #6), and had 7 miscarriages.  Although the cause of her mother’s death was tuberculosis, Margaret believed that the hardship of multiple pregnancies was a big factor in her mother’s poor health, and early death.

Margaret attended Claverack College, and completed nurses training at White Plains Hospital in New York.  From there, she worked as an obstetrical nurse on the lower east side of New York City.  While working with poor women, she saw the devastating impact of unwanted pregnancies and botched abortions.  She began a campaign to legalize contraception.  It was Margaret who coined the phrase “birth control”.

Talking About Birth Control is Illegal

Margaret Sanger outside of court house: Probably taken outside Sanger's Brownsville clinic trial at the King's County Court of Special Sessions, Jan. 30, 1917

Margaret waits outside court house.

Six years prior to Margaret’s birth, the Comstock Act of 1873 was passed making it illegal to publish and disseminate literature deemed obscene.  Along with pornography, materials related to sex education, contraception, abortion were also considered illicit.   Mailing such materials, or transporting them across state lines, was also a federal offense.  Many states passed similar, and more restrictive laws.  For example, in Massachusetts, any person simply discussing information about birth control was subject to fines and imprisonment.  In Connecticut, the use of contraception, even by consenting married couples, could result in imprisonment for up to a year.

In 1914, Margaret began publishing The Woman Rebel, a magazine meant to inform women, and inspire them to rebel against unjust laws.  The publication covered a wide range of topics, including the right to vote, workplace issues, marriage and child rearing, along with reproductive rights and birth control.  She managed to publish 8 issues before she was brought up on charges. Facing the possibility of 20 years in jail, Margaret escaped to England.  There, she continued to write pamphlets about sex education and had them shipped back to America where her supporters distributed them. A year later, Margaret returned to the US  to face trial.   Because of a massive amount of sympathetic publicity generated by her outraged supporters officials decided to drop all charges.  

Clinic Shut Down by Police

Photo shows birth control activist Margaret Sanger with female patient inside Brownsville clinic, probably taken Oct. 1916. The clinic was closed nine days after its opening as Margaret Sanger was jailed for violating the Comstock obscenity laws.

Margaret sees patient at the Women’s Clinic in Brooklyn, 1916.

Following the trial, supporters urged Margaret to resume publication of the magazine, but she had bigger plans.  In 1916, she opened the nation’s first women’s clinic offering birth control in Brooklyn, NY.  Quickly, Police charged her with being a public nuisance and she was sentenced to 30 days in the Queens penitentiary.  The clinic was closed within a week. However, in that short time, over 400 women were served.  One positive result, a court ruled that birth control could be prescribed by doctors for medical reasons.

Undaunted, Margaret went on to found a research institute, scientific journal, an advocacy organization to promote the development of birth control, and recognition of women’s reproductive rights. In 1942, these became the parent organizations of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Next, Margaret took her campaign abroad to found the International

Lines of women with baby carriages waiting in line outside of Margaret Sanger's clinic waiting to be seen.

Outside the women’s clinic,

Planned parenthood Federation in 1953.  Margaret’s tireless efforts eventually led to the development and FDA approval of the birth control pill in 1960.  This gave women unprecedented control of their own bodies, but, full repeal of the Comstock Act by the Supreme Court of the US did not occur until 1965.

What About Eugenics?

Eugenics was a social philosophy that became popular during the 20th century.  Developed by British scientist Francis Galton, it was an extension of Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection.  It proposed improving the human race by keeping people with negative traits from reproducing. At that time, groups, such as the Nazis, used this philosophy to justify the mistreatment of certain religious and minority groups, and the disabled.

Over the course of her campaign, Margaret Sanger made comments that implied support of eugenics.  Opponents of Planned Parenthood asserted that her efforts to promote birth control  focused on poor and minority populations, and were, at their core, racist.  

But, ardent supporters of Margaret Sanger point out that use of eugenics phrases was common in the mid 1900’s.   They accuse Planned Parenthood opponents of taking selected quotes out of context to undermine the organization.  

My Personal Take Away…

Read several of Margaret’s writing.  Clearly she focused on the betterment of women’s lives, not the manipulation of the racial and religious makeup of society. I think that, in hindsight, she could have chosen her words more carefully, spoken with greater eloquence.  

Her position is best summarized in this quote from the June 25, 1914 edition of The Rebel Woman:

“Our fight is for the personal liberty of the women who work. A woman’s body belongs to herself alone. It is her body. It does not belong to the Church. It does not belong to the United States of America or to any other Government on the face of the earth. The first step toward getting life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness for any woman is her decision whether or not she shall become a mother. Enforced motherhood is the most complete denial of a woman’s right to life and liberty.”

Many times, I have expressed my ideas and bungled my words. Too often, my enthusiasm for a subject may have interfered with the internal filters that would have edited my comments before I spoke them aloud.  So, I shudder to think how selective quotes from my past could present a false view of who I really am. Margaret Sanger on Women’s Work also serves as a reminder to me to take a broader view of others before passing judgment.  

See the Women’s Work Quilt

Women’s Work will debut as a featured work in the exhibit Women’s Voices, Women’s Votes, Women’s Rights, at the Clinton Presidential Library, in September 2021.  Look for more details on the Events page of this website.

Read More about Margaret Sanger

The editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (2020, September 10). Margaret Sanger. Encyclopædia Britannica. URL: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Margaret-Sanger

Michals, Debra, PhD. (2017). Margaret Sanger. National Women’s History Museum.  URL: https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/margaret-sanger

Sanger, Margaret (1921 October) The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda. (Originally published in the Birth Control Review). The Public Papers of Margaret Sanger: Web Edition. URL: https://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/webedition/app/documents/show.php?sangerDoc=238946.xml

Latson, Jennifer (2016, October 14, 12:00 PM EDT). What Margaret Sanger Really Said About Eugenics and Race, Time Magazine Archives. URL: https://time.com/4081760/margaret-sanger-history-eugenics

Steinem, Gloria (1998, April 13). Margaret Sanger: Her Crusade to Legalize Birth Control Spurred the Movement for Women’s Liberation, Time Magazine. URL:  http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,988152,00.html

 

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repetition and rhythm

Repetition and Rhythm Add Comfort and Excitement

Today I want to focus on the design concepts of repetition & rhythm, and how we can put these to work in our quilts. This content was covered in the last session of my Color & Composition class.  If you are interested in joining us for future sessions,  I’ll put a link at the bottom, but for now…

Repetition, Repetition, Repetition

Repetition is about using a design element over and over.    A repeated element gives a sense of familiarity and comfort. This could be a repeating line, shape, or pattern.

Repetition is something that we are naturally drawn to;  something we bring into our world. Here are some examples that I found in my own environment.

repetition of design in furniture drawers and hardware

multiple drawers with repeating hardware

example of repetition in design

Repetition in the stair railing.

repetition as design element in hand woven rug

repeating design in a rug

Many artists will repeat an element in every piece.

elements of my art extend beyond the edge.

Beyond the Edge: My Signature Move

It becomes their signature move, something that makes their work easily recognizable to viewers, and fans. My signature move is to take an element off the edge of my work. See more examples in my genre gallery.

Within a composition, repetition can be as simple as repeating a line, shape, color, texture.  

As I’ve been working in recent months to update the  online galleries for the Border Wall Quilt Project, I’ve found many wonderful examples of repetition.  Here are a few.

BWQP brick by LK

Repeating element-hearts. Brick by L K.

BWQP brick by Cynthia Catlin

Repeating element – woman. Brick by Cynthia Catlin.

BWQP brick by Cynthia Catlin

Repeating element – brick. Brick by Cynthia Catlin.

Pattern is created when more than one element is combined and repeated.

Here are examples from the BWQP where I think this idea of pattern is used effectively.

BWQP brick by Maude Wallace Haeger

Pattern of repeating vertical and diagonal lines. Brick by Maude Wallace Haeger.

Repeating pattern of stripes and coffins. Brick by Karen Sullivan

 

 

Rhythm,     Rhythm,          Rhythm,     Rhythm

Conversely,  Rhythm is about the space between repeating elements. It adds interest and excitement..Today, let’s look at 5 types of Rhythm:

  1.  Random Rhythm has no regular interval between repetitions. They can be all over the place.

    BWQP by Ramona Bates

    Random Rhythm. Brick by Ramona Bates.

2.  Regular Rhythm occurs when the interval between repetitions is the same.  For example, your heartbeat is a regular rhythm, or, at least it should be.  Here is a quilted example.

 BWQP brick by Price & Pampusch

Regular Rhythm. Brick by Price & Pampusch.

3.  Alternating Rhythm is the switching back and forth between 2 regular rhythms. Chess board is a simple example. However, these rhythms can be much more complex.

BWQP brick by Ramona Bates,

Alternating Rhythm. Brick by Ramona Bates,

4.  Flowing Rhythm exists when repeated elements follow a curved or undulating line. Here are some examples.

BWQP brick by Carol D Chewning

Flowing Rhythm. Brick Carol Chewning.

  5. Progressive Rhythm results from changing a characteristic of an element as it is repeated. These next examples show different ways that rhythm can progresses.

This sample shows an increase in size and color change.

BWQP brick by Lourdes Cruz

Progressive rhythm. Brick by Lourdes Cruz, Mexico.

This next brick shows multiple scenes of a story.  This is called simultaneous narrative.

BWQP brick by Sheryl D Rodda

example of progressive rhythm with simultaneous narrative. Brick by Sheryl D Rodda

Put Yourself to the Test

Look at the examples below and identify the type of rhythm in each.  The answer key is below.

1.

Brick by Sally Maxwell

2.

BWQP brick by Pat Hilderbrand

Brick by Pat Hilderbrand.

3.

Brick by Linda Laird

Monthly Color & Compositions Class

If you would like to join us, my Color & Composition class is sponsored by the Rocky Mountain Quilt Museum on the 4th Saturday of every month through the end of 2021.  In each session we explore a color scheme, a color concept, and a concept related to composition.  

Sign up here.

Answer Key: 1. alternating, 2. Flowing  and progressive. 3, random 

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